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8.2. , .

, , . .

. 8.1, ( ).

. (. 8.1, )

, ( , ).

. 8.1

1 (. 8.1, )

(8.2)

;

;

- .

, . 8.2, . (. 8.2, ). , , . . , . , .

. 8.2

3

4

(8.4) (8.6)

. 8.1.

8.1

, . , . , , , (. . 7.2).

. 8.3

. 8.3, . (. 8.3, ) (. 8.3, ). ( . 7.2) (. 5.2). . ,

v , .

(8.8),

, , . 8.2. , . , (. 8.4, ). , . (. 8.4, ), (. 8.4, ). ( ):

( . 8.4, ) ( .

1 2 (. 8.4, 5):

( ) Q , . 8.4, .

. 8.4

, . 8.5, . . (. 8.5, ). , :

    (8-10)

, (8.9) (8.11) ; ,

8.2 (. )

s, , . [. (8.9), (8.10)] (8.11). ,

. 8.5

1 2 (. . 8.5, , ) Q (8.11).

1 (. 8.5, )

2 (. 8.5, )

(8.15) (8.17) :

8.3

. 8.3.

(8.3), (8.7) (8.18), , , , . .

. 8.6

, , (8.13), (8.15), (8.16) , [ (8.11)]. (8.17) (8.14).

. , . 8.6, . . 8.6, . 5x4, ,

, . . . , , . . 8.6, . 5x5. . 8.6, , . 2x2, , . , (. 8.6, ). . 8.6, . .4 , . . . , , , . 8.6, .

. 8.7

13x14, , .

, , , . , . . .

, . 8.7. 1, 3 , 2 4 , . .

16 , 7 , . .

, ,

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